In 1939 it was not a foregone conclusion that Mussolini would enter World War II on the side of Hitler. In this previously unpublished and only recently discovered diary, Iris Origo, author of the classic War in Val d'Orcia, provides a vivid account of how Mussolini decided on a course of action that would devastate his country and ultimately destroy his regime. Though the British-born Origo lived with her Italian husband on an estate in a remote part of Tuscany, she was supremely well-connected and regularly in touch with intellectual and diplomatic circles in Rome, where her godfather, William Phillips, was the American ambassador. Her diary describes the Fascist government's growing infatuation with Nazi Germany as Hitler's armies marched triumphantly across Europe and the campaign of propaganda and intimidation that was mounted in support of its new aims. The book ends with the birth of Origo's daughter and Origo's decision to go to Rome to work with prisoners of war at the Italian Red Cross. Together with War in Val d'Orcia, A Chill in the Air oﬀers an indispensable record of Italy at war as well as a thrilling story of a formidable woman's transformation from observer to actor at a great historical turning point.